Islam and radical Islam
What is Radical Islam?
Islam was not hijacked by the birth of Muslim Brotherhood in 1928. Islam was not hijacked in 1941 by Jamat-E-Islami in India. Islam was not hijacked by the Taliban in the 1980’s. Islam was not even hijacked in 2001 during the devastating events on 9/11. The brutal reality is all these radical organizations or groups herald the theology of Radical Islam that was created 1400 years ago.
Early Muslim soldiers were mighty victors; they captured a vast area in the greater Middle East, North Africa and parts of Europe including Spain. This victory was unique in two distinct ways; (A) it took place in the name of God, and (B) it lasted for hundreds of years. They experienced their explosive military victories for generations. So, it was natural for them to connect the Quranic verses of war with the verses of victory, such as, “(Muslims) must certainly triumph” and Allah will make Islam “superior over all religions.”
Consequently, Islam was “explained” based primarily on aggressive war by theological cherry-picking. A hundred plus verses of values, compassion, and peace were overshadowed by a few war verses that sized and shaped Islam.
- “As it is obvious, at first “the fighting” was forbidden, then it was permitted and after that it was made obligatory – (1) against them who start “the fighting” against you (Muslims). (2) and against all those who worship others along with Allah…as mentioned in Sura Al Baqarah (ll), Al Imran (lll) and Tauba (lX) and other Surah (chapter of the Qur’an).”
- “The Caliph fights all other peoples until they become Muslims.” – Sharia law.
- As establishing Islamic State was made obligatory, lying for that was made obligatory too.
- “Truth is one of the most important principles of Islam and lying is one of the greatest sins. But in real life some needs are such that telling a lie is not only allowed, in some circumstances it is decreed mandatory.” (Mawdudi)
- “Lying is obligatory if the goal is obligatory.” (Shafi’i Law r.8.2)
Military victories, however, are destined to die out. In 732 CE, the Spanish Caliph Abdur Rahman invaded city of Tours in France. After a furious battle, he was defeated and killed on 10 of October by the French general Charles Martel, known as “The Hammer.” After this, Muslims were “never able to mount a serious offensive at Western Europe again.
When the dream of global domination by war collapsed, a theological detour was undertaken. Previously, the “power of iron” in the verse, “And We sent down iron, wherein there is awesome power and many benefits for people” had been explained as “iron here is meant political and military power.”  Now the same “power of iron” is explained in Sharia book as “Power of Islamic State.”
The tragedy is deepened further by the contemporary Sharia-Bolsheviks such as Hasan Banna, Sayed Qutb, Mawlana Mawdudi, and Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini:
- “The Qur’an has delegated to Muslims the duty of bringing humanity, which has gone astray, to the right course and granted them the leadership of the world……Therefore the duty of guiding and instructing humanity devolves on us and not on the West.”
- “Nor could it (Islamic faith) be taken as a belief that promises a paradise in the next life to those who perform its rituals, without applying in their everyday life its distinctly unique institutions, jurisprudence and methodology.”
Finally, from Mawlana Mawdudi, the founding father of modern version of radical Islam in 1941 and Ayatollah Khomeini, the founding father of Islamic theocracy in Iran in 1979, came the following statements:
- “The Muslim Party will inevitably extend invitation to the citizens of other countries to embrace the faith…. Even otherwise also if the Muslim Party commands adequate resources it will eliminate un-Islamic governments and establish the power of Islamic governments in their stead…. Islamic “Jihad” does not recognize their (non-Muslims’) right to administer State-affairs according to a system, which in the view of Islam is evil.”
- “Although an Islamic State may be set up anywhere on earth, Islam does not seek to restrict human rights or privileges to the boundaries of such a State.”
- “The system of this (Islamic) government is such that it does not leave much room for man to exercise his own free will.”
- “Islam, speaking from the viewpoint of political philosophy, is the very antithesis of secular Western democracy.”
- “(Regional) Nationality based on family, birthplace, language, race, etc., is a great danger for humankind…If there is any enemy to Islam’s call after Kufr (disbelief) and Shirk (multi-deities), it is the devil of nationality based on blood and birth-place…One has to shun feeling of land and blood (regional nationality) to remain a Muslim…… The ideas and bases on which the European Nationalism flourished are much against humanity…. Islam’s ultimate goal is to create (Islamic) World-State.”
- “Islam makes it incumbent on all adult males, provided they are not disabled or incapacitated, to prepare themselves for the conquest of countries so that the writ of Islam is obeyed in every country in the world.… What is the good of us asking for the hand of a thief to be severed or an adulteress to be stoned to death when all we can do is recommended such punishments, having no power to implement them?” (Khomeini)
This is radical Islam.
Recently, it forcefully attacked human civilization in the shape of Al Qaeda, ISIS, Boko Haram and Al Shabab. Crime and wrong-doings are ubiquitous and the West is no exception. Radical Islamists capitalize on this and propose the Islamic Caliphate is a divine alternative, denying the fact that the era of the Caliphate was mostly bloodstained anarchy. Radical Islamists in the West cleverly play victim-syndrome. They are adept in using the laws, multiculturalism and societal norms of their host countries to advance their objectives, even in instances when their nefarious deeds have been exposed. Mosques in London have been caught selling extremist materials and spreading violence. Furthermore, the US Federal Bureau of Investigation found 10% of US Mosques preach aggressive Jihad. Many Imams violate local law and openly perform polygamous marriages. After championing the rampant violation of rights of women and non-Muslims in Muslim countries, radical Islam has increased its pressure groups exponentially in the West, with most of them using their citizens’ rights as shields. The Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) has succeeded in capturing the Human Rights Council of the United Nations (UN).
Now its goal is to defeat Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) by using the Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam (CDIUHR) and establish its own independent human rights commission.
“In the last plenary of the Human Rights Council the Pakistani delegate claimed, ‘it is an insult to our faith to discuss the Sharia in this forum.’ The president of the Council agreed and ruled that it would no longer be permissible to discuss in detail any particular system of law.”
The UN is in danger of creating a global blasphemy law that would make religious criticism a crime, even when these laws rampantly violate Human Rights as well as its own Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
This is radical Islam. Its weakest front is its theology. All good forces of humanity should dismantle it with the progressive Muslims at the forefront.
Next, we will discuss the theological construct of peaceful Islam.
 Hassan Al-Banna, What is Our Message? (Islamic Publications, 1974).
 E.g. Quran 2:193, 217, 244, 246; 3:146, 153, 154; 4:74-78, 84, 94, 95, 104; 5:94; 8:39, 65, 72, 73; 9:5, 14, 19, 29, 38, 88, 112; 47:4, 31; 48:16, 22; 61:2, 4, 11. See also Quran 5:56.
 Quran chapter 9:33.
 Sahih Al-Bukhari, Number 1081, translated by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan, Dar-us-Salam, (1994).
 Umdat Al Salik (Shafi’i Law# o9.9 [and 0.9.8 based on 9:29 of the Quran]), translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller, Amana Corporation, (Revised edition, 1997). This chapter is added by the translator based on three other early Islamic texts.
 Mawlana Mawdudi, Tarjamanul Qura’an 54.
 Umdat Al Salik (Shafi’i Law# r8.2), translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller, Amana Corporation, (Revised edition, 1997).
 Nazeer Ahmed, The Battle of Tours, History of Islam, https://historyofislam.com/the-battle-of-tours/.
 Quran chapter 57:25.
 Codified Islamic Law 245, (Vol. 3. 1995).1717
 Hassan Al-Banna, What is Our Message?, Islamic Publications, (1974).
 Sayyid Qutb, Islam, The Religion of the Future, International Islamic Publishing House, (1992).
 Mawlana Mawdudi, Human Rights in Islam, Islamic Foundation, (1976).
 Mawlana Mawdudi, A Short History of the Revivalist Movement in Islam, Islamic Publications, (1963).
 Mawlana Mawdudi, The Islamic Law and Constitution, Lahore: Islamic Publications, (1977).
 Mawlana Mawdudi, History Of Jamat-E Islami.
 Ayatollah Khomeini, many sources and citations.
 Video available at Truth Tube TV website.
 10% of US Mosques Preach Jihad According to FBI, The Right Perspective (2009).
 Raheel’s Reflections, Raheel Raza, http://Hudud.raheelraza.com/raheelblog.htm, last accessed 22 April 2017.
 See e.g. Mary Abdelmassih, Forced Islamization of Christian Girls Supported by Egyptian State (23 Dec 2009), Assyrian International News Association, http://Hudud.aina.org/news/20091223164421.htm. See also Robert Spencer, Pakistan: Muslim groups threaten more violence against Christians (5 Aug 2009), Jihad Watch, https://Hudud.jihadwatch.org/2009/08/pakistan-muslim-groups-threaten-more-violence-against-christians.
 Quote originally published in the Saudi Gazette.
 Speaking Freely About Religion: Religious Freedom, Defamation and Blasphemy, International Humanist and Ethical Union, http://iheu.org/newsite/wp-content/uploads/Speaking%20Freely%20about%20Religion_0.pdf).
What is Islam?
While early Muslims conquered the whole Middle East, North Africa, and part of Europe by unprovoked aggressive wars, scores of Islam preachers peacefully converted countless non-Muslims to Islam in an equally vast area from India to Indonesia and even in Uyghur in China. Not a single sword was wielded, not a drop of blood was shed, no cry and sigh of widows and orphans filled pages of history. The preachers followed the Islam defined by the Prophet (S) and the Quran; sad that such peaceful divine definition of Islam is outdone in Muslim minds by violent victories of warfare.
PROPHET(S) DEFINES ISLAM
- “He (angel Gabriel) said O Muhammad! Tell me about Islam. The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: Islam is to testify that there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, to perform the prayers, to pay the Zakat (Islamic tax), to fast in Ramadan and to make the pilgrimage to the House if you are able to do so.”
- One day the Angel Gabriel came to Prophet and asked – “O Muhammad! What is Islam?” He replied – “Islam is – worship Allah without any partner, establish prayer, observe the Islamic tax (Zaka’at).”
- “The representative of a tribe came to the Prophet and asked – ‘O Prophet! Please give us some instruction that will enable us to go to heaven’. He said – (1) Promise and accept that none but Allah is to be worshipped and Muhammad (SA) is His Prophet, (2) Establish prayer perfectly, (3) Pay the Islamic Tax (4) Fast in the month of Ramadan and (5) pay one fifth of war-booty. He also said – “Memorize these instructions well and tell everybody when you go back.”
If we follow this definition of Islam, many of our problems will be eliminated.
THE QURAN DEFINES ISLAM
The Quran defines Islam by connecting its two elements: (1) Defining itself, and (2) Defining the life-mission of all the Prophets. Let’s compare the verses defining the Quran with Mawlana Mawdudi’s “Tafhimul Quran”, a huge book explaining Quranic verses.
- “Say: “That is a Message Supreme” (38:67). Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse.
- “This is no less than a Message to (all) the Worlds”. (38:87). Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse.
- “Verily this is an Admonition” (73:19) -. Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse.
- “This surely is an admonition”. (74:54). Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse.
- “We have made the (Qur’an) a Light”. (42:52). Mawdudi explained other verses but skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse.
- “Rejected apostles before thee, who came with Clear Signs, Books of dark prophecies, and the Book of Enlightenment” (3:184). Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse.
- “Blessed is He who sent down the criterion to His servant, that it may be an admonition to all creatures.” (25:1). Mawdudi says- “The warner may be AI-Furqan or the Holy Prophet to whom it was revealed. In fact, both were the warners because they were both sent for one and the same purpose”. –
- “We have, without doubt, sent down the Message.” (15:9). Mawdudi changed the word “Message” that has an established specific meaning to “Term” or “Expression” by saying, “it is We Who have sent this ‘Word.’
- “Yet there is among men such a one as disputes about Allah, without Knowledge, without Guidance, and without a Book of Enlightenment.” (22:8). Mawdudi says “Illuminating Book” is “Source of information gained from Divine Revelation”.
- “Allah has revealed the most beautiful Message in the form of a Book……. Such is the guidance of Allah.” (39:23). Mawdudi agrees that the Quran is “the best teaching, a self-consistent Book. That is Allah’s Guidance.”
- “For it is indeed a Message of instruction” (80:11). Mawdudi explains – “The allusion is to the Quran”.
The Quran nowhere defines itself as a book of law or state-administration. Rather, it defines itself as:
- Book of Light,
- Divine Guidance,
- A Message Supreme,
- Message to the Worlds,
- Book of Admonition,
- Book of Enlightenment,
- Criterion to His servant,
- Admonition to all creatures, and
- Beautiful Message in the form of a Book and Guidance
It is interesting to note that like all other radical Islamists, Mawdudi either skipped those crucial verses, or was forced to support them since the verses are so clear and precise that, unfortunately for the radicals, it left absolutely no scope for twisting or “improvement”! Dabbing the Quran with the brush of politics was one of the most serious betrayals to the Quran. Transforming the meaning of the Quranic word “Sharia” from “Moral Guidance” to “State Law” was one of the major conspiracies against Islam. Imam Bukhari’s compilation of Sahi Hadiths—that stands next to the Quran in stature—proclaimed that the Quran was not a book of law.
Imam Bukhari was correct. There are only four undisputed (Hudud) penalties stipulated by the Qur’an: 1) Theft; 2) Robbery; 3) Illicit sexual intercourse; 4) Slander. Added to these are murder and injury where the Quran allows the victim’s family to pardon the accused as charity or with blood-money. Do these rulings make the Quran a book of State law? No. The Quran also speaks of the stars and the earth, which does not make it a book of astronomy or geography, does it? Thus, most of Quran’s and Prophet’s (S) social rulings are purely contextual. BTW, the Quran only discourages drinking alcohol without mentioning any punishment, forbids killing of apostates (see chapter Nisa verse 137) and does not even mention rape.
Next, let’s see how the Quran defines life-mission of all Prophets  and how Mawlana Mawdudi “explained” those verses in his voluminous “Tafhimul Quran”. Indeed, on this issue there are some apparently contradictory verses that radical Islamists take advantage of. This is discussed in the chapter on “Arguments of Radical Islamists” of my book “How Sharia-Ism Hijacked Islam”.
- “Apostles only to give good news and to warn.” Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse.
- “Therefore, do thou give admonition, for thou art one to admonish.”. Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse. (Quran 88:21)
- “Thou art not one to manage (men’s) affairs”. Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse. (Quran 88:22)
- Say: “O ye men! …. I am not (set) over you to arrange your affairs.”. Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse. (Quran 10:108)
- “Our Messenger’s duty to proclaim (the message) in the clearest manner”. Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse. (Quran 5:92)
- “The Messenger’s duty is but to proclaim (the message)”. Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse. (Quran 5:99)
- “But what is the mission of apostles but to preach the Clear Message?”. Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse. (Quran 16:35)
- ““verily thou dost guide (men) to the Straight Way”. Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse. (Quran 15:89)
- “he is but a perspicuous warner”. Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse. (Quran 7:184)
- “But if they turn away, thy duty is only to preach the clear Message”. Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse. (Quran 16:82)
- “It is not required of thee (O Messenger., to set them on the right path, but Allah sets on the right path whom He pleaseth”. Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse. (Quran 2:272)
- “Verily We have sent thee in truth as a bearer of glad tidings and a warner”. (Quran 2:119) Mawdudi did not contradict it.
- “Verily We have sent thee in truth as a bearer of glad tidings and a warner”. (Quran 2:119) Mawdudi did not contradict.
- “Messenger. who gave good news as well as warning, that mankind, after (the coming) of the apostles, should have no plea against Allah”. (Quran 4:165). Mawdudi did not contradict.
- “Truly We have sent thee as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings, and Warner, And as one who invites to Allah’s (grace) by His leave, and as a lamp spreading Light.” (Quran 33:45 & 46) Mawdudi supported it.
- “We made thee not one to watch over their doings, nor art thou set over them to dispose of their affairs”. (Quran 6:107) Mawdudi also said, “It is emphasized that the Prophet (peace be on him) is only required to preach the Truth and try to call people to embrace it. His responsibility ends at that for he is, after all, not their warden”.
- “I am but a Warner open and clear.” (Quran 46:9). Mawdudi supports it by saying, “My only mission is that I should present the right way before the people, and should warn of an evil end those who do not accept it.”
- “But if any turn away, we have not sent thee to watch over their (evil deeds)”. (Quran 4:80) Mawdudi supports it. “The task entrusted to the Prophet (peace be on him) was merely to communicate to them the ordinances and directives of God and he acquitted himself of it very well. It was not his duty to compel them to follow the right way.”
- “Say: “Not mine is the responsibility for arranging your affairs.” (Quran 6:66) Mawdudi also says, “His task is merely to proclaim Truth as distinct from falsehood.”
- “Thy duty is to make (the Message) reach them: it is our part to call them to account.” (Quran 13:40) Mawdudi supported it.
- “’Only this has been revealed to me: that I am to give warning plainly and publicly.” (Quran 38:70) Mawdudi skipped explaining this verse and went to the next verse.
- “Thou art no other than a warner.” (Quran 35:23). Mawdudi said, “Your only duty is to warn the people and nothing else.”
- “But thee We only sent to give glad tidings and admonition.” (Quran 25:56)
- “We only send the apostles to give Glad Tidings and to give warnings.” (Quran 18:56). Mawdudi translates as, “The only mission for which We send the Messengers is to convey good news and stern warning.”
- “We have not sent thee as a guard over them. Thy duty is but to convey (the Message) …. “Verily thou dost guide (men) to the Straight Way.” (Quran 42:48 & 52) This chapter has 53 verses, but Mawdudi’s Tafhimul Quran ends with verse 29.
- “We made thee not one to watch over their doings, nor art thou set over them to dispose of their affairs.” (Quran 6:107). Mawdudi says, “the Prophet (peace be on him) is only required to preach the Truth and try to call people to embrace it. His responsibility ends at that for he is, after all, not their warden.”
So, we see that conducting politics, waging wars, or running an administration are never conditions of Prophethood. The image of the Prophets in Muslim-mind loomed tall and formidable as mighty preachers and not as Presidents or military generals. Out of thousands, only few Prophets such as Yusuf (A), David (A), Solomon (A) ruled over kingdoms. Our early Imams knew it well; they did not assume political positions even after repeated propositions, pressure and even torture by the Caliphs.
Imam Malik was approached by the Caliph with two proposals:
- To enact his Book of Law as State Law (Imam Malik wrote only few laws anyway).
- To hang his book of Law in the Holy Ka’aba.
But Imam Malik never fell into the wily trap of the Caliph, and because of his refusals he was repeatedly persecuted. His visionary reply still can serve as a beacon of light to Muslims everywhere when he said, “I am Imam here. In other places, they have their Imams.” We must follow imams of our time, not copycat the past. None of the four Sharia-Imams claimed their laws as “Allah’s Law”. When Imam Shafi’i was asked about his legal opinion, he averred, “we are under obligation to arrive at the right answers according to us.” Lest we forget that the social edicts of different Prophets were different as they lived during different time periods, as even Mawdudi admits.
FABRICATED DEFINITION OF ISLAM
As there was little scope for insertion of texts in the Quran, a vast swath of “Prophet’s examples” (Hadith) were collected. Our six Imams (Imams Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawood, Tirmiji, Ibn Majah and Nasaee) collected about 2.3 million such Hadiths, rejected about 98.98% of them, and aggregated only 1.02% in their respective six collections called “Sahi Sitta”. A floodgate of adding fake ones to genuine Hadises was opened to legitimize whatever the clergies wanted to establish in the name of Islam. One glaring example should suffice to prove it. Prophet (S) performed Hajj only once and there he gave a sermon. There he said that he was going to leave “SOMETHING” for world-Muslims; they would never go astray if they hold to it strongly. Now, what is that SOMETHING?
- He left behind the Quran and his Sunnah (examples):
- “The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “I have left two things among you, as long as you hold fast to them, you will never go astray. They are the Book of Allah (Quran) and the Sunnah of His Messenger.”
- He left behind the Quran and his progeny:
“I am leaving among you two weighty things: the one being the Book of Allah in which there is right guidance and light, so hold fast to the Book of Allah and adhere to it. He exhorted (us) (to hold fast) to the Book of Allah and then said: The second are the members of my household.”
He left behind only Quran:
- “I have left among you the Book of Allah, and if you hold fast to it, you would never go astray.”
- “I have left among you, which if you hold fast, you will not go astray. It is Allah’s Book (the Holy Qur’an).”
- “God’s Book is enough for us.” (Caliph Omar)
Clearly, either all or two of them are false. The Quran repeatedly proclaims itself as a simple, clear, and complete Book. So, it does not take much contemplation to understand which of these statements is correct. I am not discarding Hadiths at all. Indeed, Hadiths are a unique literature of humankind; an important source of understanding the theological-social dynamics of that society. But that does not take Hadith to the level of divinity like the Quran, because there is no built-in mechanism to detect or stop the abuse of Hadiths.
THE FIRST EFFORT TO DEFINE ISLAM
“Keeping in view the several definitions given by the ulama, need we make any comment except that no two learned divines are agreed on this fundamental. If we attempt our own definition as each learned divine has done and that definition differs from that given by all others, we unanimously go out of the fold of Islam. And if we adopt the definition given by any one of the ulama, we remain Muslims according to the view of that alim but kafirs according to the definition of everyone else.”
The excerpt above is from the Munir Commission Report (led by former Chief Justice Muhammad Munir) that was set up in Pakistan in 1953 to define Islam. The commission worked with top national Islamic scholars for more than two years to define “Islam” and “Muslim.” That was the only formal effort in history to define Islam. Mawlana Mawdudi’s (the founding father of modern radical Islam in India in 1941) theist political party, Jamat-E-Islami, had been pressing the government to constitutionally declare the Ahmadi-Muslims as non-Muslims. In 1953, Mawdudi’s leaflet, “The Qadiany Problem,” led to the extermination of about fifteen thousand Ahmadi Muslims in Lahore in just three days. Mawdudi was tried and sentenced to death but was eventually “pardoned” due to Saudi-influence.
Much of the chaos, confusion, violence, and sectarian brutalities prevalent in Muslim societies were, and continue to be, due to absence of a tangible definition of Islam. That is why defining Islam is so important.
Failure to define Islam thus essentially means failure to define a Muslim.
(From a chapter of the book “HOW SHARIA-ISM HIJACKED ISLAM” by Hasan Mahmud.
 An-Nawawi’s Forty Hadith, translated by Dr. Izzedin Ibrahim and Denys Johnson-Davies, Islamic Book Service, (2007).
 Codified Islamic Law, Vol. 2 – page 498 – with reference to Sahi Bukhari, Muslim, and Miskat.
 Sahi Bukhari, No. 12, (translated by Hafiz Abdul Jalil).
 Quran 3:184, 6:90, 38:67, 87, 42:52, 73:19, 74:54, 15:9, 22:8, 25:1 and 39:23.
 Quran Jashiyah 18. See also Mayeda 48 and Ash Shura 13.
 Bukhari Al, Encyclopedia Britannica, (1983). Imam Bukhari’s (810 – 870 AD) compilation of Sahi Hadiths is regarded as one of the most respectable Hadith collections.
 Quran Araf 7:184. See also e.g., Kahf 18:56; Ahzab 33:45; Gashiyah 88:21, 22; Anam 6:107; Ra’ad 13:40; Nisa 4:80, 165; Tawba 9:51; Bakara 2:119, 272; Nahl 16:82; Sa’ad 38:65, 70; Fatir 35:23, 24; Ahkwaf 46:9; Anam 6:52, 66; Ash Shura 42:48; Yunus 10:108; Kwahf 29; Mayeda 5:92, 93; Hijr 15:89.
 Kasasul Anbia – Vol 1 – page 259; Vol 2 – page 62.
 Al-Shafii’s Risala – translated by Majid Khadduri.- page 292.
 Explanation of Quran 5:49, available at http://Hudud.tafheem.net/main.html.
 Akhtar Sheraji and Safdar Agha, The Quranic concept of Nikah (Wedlock) vs. Religious Prostitution 423, Quranic Education & Research, (2005).
 Tarikh Al Tabari Vol. 9 page 113.
 Sahi Muslim Hadith 5920, available at http://Hudud.iium.edu.my/deed/hadith/muslim/031_smt.html.
 Sahi Muslim, Vol. 7-2803 and 5922, available at http://Hudud.iium.edu.my/deed/hadith/muslim/007_smt.html.
 Sahi Ibn Majah, Vol. 4–3078. See also Muwatta 46/3; Muslim 44/4; Muslim 15/19.
 Sahi Bukhari, Vol. 1-114.
 Quran – Al Anam 59. See also e.g., Yunus 61; Nahl 89; Bakara 221; Kahf 1; Bani Israel 9, 41; Kamar 17, 22, 32, 40; Imran 118.
 Munir Commission Report 227, (1954) available at http://Hudud.thepersecution.org/dl/report_1953.pdf. “Alim” means Islamic scholar (singular) while Ulama/ulema means Islamic scholars (plural). “Kafir” means Non-Muslim (author).
 S. Abul Ala Maududi, The Qadiani Problem, Islamic Publications, available at http://Hudud.scribd.com/doc/2591432/04-The-Qadiani-Problem.
 Report of the Court of Inquiry constituted under Punjab Act II of 1954.